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Water & National Resources in Sudan
2014-04-01 14:20:55

Water & National Resources in Sudan

  The Renaissance Dam In 1904 a study was conducted by the United States Bureau of reclamation. The study identified 26 sites for constructing dams in Ethiopia. The most important site was the current Renaissance Dam project, which located on Alabaly River, the largest river in Ethiopia .  The incoming water was estimated by 25 billion cubic meters, the Dam is situated just about 20 km from the Sudanese border in Bani Shangol Region. In February 2011 the government of Ethiopia declared the start of the construction work of the Renaissance Dam on the Blue Nile for the purpose of ،...

Sudan and the United States of America
2014-02-19 00:00:00

Sudan and the United States of America

Statement of Shirley Christian, Business ManagerFrutarom, Inc., North Bergen, New JerseyTestimony Before the Subcommittee on Tradeof  the House Committee on Ways and MeansHearing on the Use and Effect of Unilateral Trade SanctionsMay 27, 1999Thank you Mr. Chairman and members of the Subcommittee for this opportunity to testify. My name is Shirley Christian. I am pleased to testify today on behalf of Frutarom, Inc. in my capacity as Business Manager of Frutarom Meer’s gum division. Frutarom is a leading processor and supplier of gum arabic in the world, and one of only three processors i،...

Sudan & South Sudan Relations
2014-02-13 00:00:00

Sudan & South Sudan Relations

Comprehensive Peace AgreementMEKELLE AgreementAgreement on Banking Agreement on Border Issues Agreement on Certain Economic MattersAgreement on Post Service Benefits Sudan&South  Agreement on Security Arrangements Agreement on trade Sudan &South Sudan Cooperation AgreementFramework Agreement on the Stuts of Nationals of the State Related Matters ،...

Report of the Committee On Handing over of Projects of Darfur Transitional Authority For the period 2007 – 2011
2014-02-05 00:00:00

Report of the Committee On Handing over of Projects of Darfur Transitional Authority For the period 2007 – 2011

Introduction Like other States of the Sudan, the State of the grate Darfur enjoy a number of development projects in the different fields of development, some of which are financed through the national development budget, such as the Road of Al Ingaaz Al Gharbi (Western salvation road), the Martyr Sabrah Airport, Abu Jabrah railroad, Neiala and El-Obied transport line – Al Foulah, Neiala - Al Fasher. Other projects are funded from States’ development budget, such as the project of water harvest, the project of States internal routes, the project of the Marrah Mountain (Jabal Marrah)- ،...

2014-02-05 00:00:00


Protocol between the Government of Sudan and SPLM/A on the Resolution of Abyei ConflictAbyei Area Referendum ACT 2009How the Abyei experts exceeded their mandate Arbitration Agreement between The Government of Sudan and The Sudan People’s Liberation Movement on Delimiting Abyei Area Agreement Of Temporary Arrangements For Administration And Security Of The Abyie Area.Agreement Between The Government of Sudan And The UN Concerning The Status of The UNISFA . AUHIP Proposals Towards a Resolution of The Issue of AbyeiAUHIP TFA Proposal Final Sudan Legal Note 27.12 LASTThe Republic of Sudan ،...

Home » Sudanese Panorama » Sudan

Sudan Civilization

  • Introduction

    Sudan is noted as a country that gave humankind a great civilization heritage, lasting from the pre-historic era up to the Islamic history era. Throughout this period, Sudanese civilization was not isolated, however; rather, it was in contact with, and influenced by, other world civilizations - sometimes involving war against them and at other times having peaceful cultural ‘give and take’ relations with other notable civilizations.. These successive cultural interactions and their consequences bestowed on Sudan a distinguished status, making it a focus of attention for other – and not always entirely benevolent - world powers. This fact can justify the myriad names used in reference to Sudan in ancient Egyptian, Greek, Mediterranean, plus in ‘old-world’ writings, notably Wawa; Tasty; Tahansu; Kush; Ethiopia; Yam; Meroe; Nuba; Nubatia; Makuria; and Allodia .

    Pre-historic Era

    Since the Paleolithic period more than three hundred thousand years ago, signs of human life have been recorded in Sudan, represented in the discovery of stone tools for hunting. These artifacts have been categorized as amongst the oldest antiquities to be found anywhere in the world.In 8000 B.C, a drastic climatic change took hold owing to several factors, notably plummeting rainfall levels; marked changes to the Nile’s course; and the transformation of the Wadi Hawar area in Darfur into a site of lakes and streams. As a result, a new life akin to that of nomads emerged in settlements near wadis, lakes, and the Nile itself (allied to other seasonal settlements that would move according to seasonal rainfall levels.) During that episode of history, the so-called Medium Stone Age civilization of Khartoum emerged. It excelled over its contemporary Nile Valley civilizations by virtue of its handicrafts of decorated pottery and various hunting tools. During the Neolithic period ( 7000-5000 B.C), human settlements spread throughout Sudan to Arkweet, Kassala, Khashm Al-Girba, Upper River Atbara (eastern Sudan), to Wadi Hawar, Meleet in western Sudan, in Kadraka Wadi and Al-Kuway (northern Sudan), and to Shehainat, Kadarou, and Kaddada in central Sudan. All these areas were renowned for their intensive production of decorated pottery, well-polished stone tools, and the prevalence of cultivation and grazing professions. This period saw the first evolution of social organizations like clans and tribes, led by persons whose importance appeared in their tombs full, in turn, of, amongst other items, funeral furniture jewelry made from ivory and shells, stone tools, and pottery.

    Nubian Civilization Groups

    Climatic changes that occurred in 4000 B.C caused human settlements in the Far East and Nile Valley to expand. Population groups grew and led to the evolution of the Pharaohs State in Egypt and the civilization of Group (A) in the northern Sudanese Nuba region and in southern Egypt. That period witnessed the flourishing in Sudan of the cultivation of lentils and peas, the handicrafts of pottery, stone plates, ostrich feather fans, millstones, copper drills, bone bracelets, clay statues, and beads of sea-shells and carnelian.People started mining gold and precious stones in the Eastern desert, trading them with the people of Upper Egypt; indeed, these items became major features in both the tombs of pre-dynasty Egyptian chieftains and graves of pharaohs from the first dynasty. Further evidence suggests that the people of the first group had strong ties with their peer ethnic groups living to the south of the Second Cataract of the Nile. Consequently, they became intermediaries in the Nile trade between Egypt and areas beyond that cataract. The civilization of Group (A) vanished because the kings of the old Egyptian dynasty mounted recurrent military campaigns to secure their subject’s needs from the resources of the Nuba. These raids led to the attrition of resources and the deterioration of economic opportunities and living conditions.The people of Nuba made a fresh return to unity for the sake of building a new civilization on the ruins of the civilization of the Group (A). This development led to the evolution of the civilization of group (C) in the Lower Nuba during the period 2300-1500 B.C. It also prompted the evolution of the civilization of Kerma in the Upper Nuba. The civilization of Group (C) was hallmarked by relative wealth because its people owned large herds of cattle and used mud to build luxurious houses and well-fortified fortresses, too. This group was renowned for making the best type of pottery (the ubiquitous ‘black pottery’), decorated with white geometrical inscriptions. Members of this group were also renowned for their fondness of art like drawing on rocks and making mud statues. They were, moreover, famous for making ornaments with stones, shells and animal bones, notably earrings, beads, anklets, and necklaces. It has also become apparent that Group (C) imported some ornaments from Egypt as well.

    The Civilization of Kerma (2500 – 1500 B.C)

    Some scholars called Kerma and its subsequent kingdoms Kush, a name referenced in several ancient and religious scripts; the Old Testimony tells the story of the victory of Tehraqa, the King of Napta over the Assyrians in Palestine. However, the name Kerma, where this kingdom originates, refers to the site of the first discovery made in the town of Kerma, which, itself, lies at the western bank of the Nile, or, some 20 km2 south of the Third Cataract. Since 2500 B.C, Kerma had been ruled by strong kings who, in turn, extended their influence northwards to the southern peripheries of Egypt, and southwards to Barkal Mountain and the area of the Fourth Cataract. They also exchanged trade with the rulers of the Nile Delta by way of the desert road (and so avoiding Upper Egypt).Successive kings made good use of the excellent location of their kingdom, too, to control trade between north and central Africa, the Red Sea across Kassala, and the road to Darfur. Kerma’s population along the Nile Valley reached 200,000 people. Although they were kings of a real state extending along 800 km2, they maintained its social structure through subordinate emirates and sheikdoms, which remained as embryonic political units until falling to occupation by the Modern Egyptian Kingdom.Kerma has presented humanity with rich heritage, and embodied its architectural development in one of the wonders of its era: the Tambourines (Dufoof) temple. The temple exists still to this day, standing at 150 feet long and 75 feet wide: it resembles a mountain assembled carefully by brick. The inhabitants of Kerma planned their town and protected it with well-fortified walls surrounded by deep ditches. They excelled also in polished handicrafts such as wood sculptures, copper, bronze, gold, ivory, and pottery artifacts.The community of Kerma comprised Nubians - the overlords of both society and the state, and the ethnic group with the biggest membership.The Nubians worked in agriculture and governmental departments. The Bedouins were the dwellers of the desert and grazers of animals. Some of them lived in cities and joined the military. The Egyptians were a group of traders who settled in Kerma. The least-privileged population included slaves and captives - most of who arrived from central Africa. The civilization of Kerma collapsed due to the practice of burying offerings along with the deceased. This practice unsurprisingly exhausted eventually the human, animal and agricultural resources of the country, and generally enfeebled both its state and society. These factors combined to presage Kerma’s collapse against the armies of the modern Egyptian Kingdom in 1500 B.C. The Kermatic kingdom, however, left behind a splendid cultural inheritance to subsequent Sudanese civilizations.

    Periods of Egyptian Occupation

    Nubia had always been a source of acute worry at worst and unease at best to the Pharaohs of Egypt. They tried to occupy it thrice - all in vain. In spite of their recurrent attempts and persistent quest, the pharaohs never succeeded in penetrating deeply into Nubia – let alone annex it. 1. The Era of the Old Egyptian KingdomThe first text to shed light on the Nubian –Egyptian relations is the script of King "Senfru", the founder of the Fourth dynasty of the Old Egyptian Kingdom. The script states that he dispatched a military campaign to Nubia. King "Manzaraa" led another early campaign against Nubia, dispatching troops to discipline the Majy, Awat, and Koban tribes and, in turn, grab their gold and precious stones mines. By the time of the ascendancy of the Sixth dynasty to the throne, Nubian–Egyptian relations had turned peaceful. Several scripts by rulers of southern Egyptian provinces in Aswan have recorded trade trips to Nubia, tasked with importing precious commodities like ostrich feathers, ebony, ivory, and animal hides.2. The Era of the Middle Egyptian KingdomDuring this period, the pharaohs built fortresses between the First and the Second Cataracts to deter threats to their southern borders from Group (C) and the Kingdom of Kerma, and regulate bilateral trade, too. However, they soon lost control over the fortresses when the balance of power swung back in favor of Kerma when the Egyptian Kingdom became weaker steadily.3. The Era of the Modern Egyptian KingdomThe Pharaohs of the Modern Egyptian Kingdom pursued a new policy towards Nubia. They tried to ‘Egyptianize’ it .To this end, they imposed the religion of Amoon and the Egyptian language on Nubians; in other words, strip Nubians of their sense of identity, subjugate them, annex their lands to Egypt, and, in turn, ransack their bountiful recourses.The Nubians resisted occupation and Egyptianization by establishing pocket states that refused stubbornly to surrender. This forced the Egyptians to seek undertakings from the chieftains of the pocket states that trade with Egypt would continue unimpeded. However, when internal conflicts erupted in Egypt, the chieftains changed the route of trade away from Egypt to the Arab Peninsula and the Far East; not surprisingly, the Egyptian economy collapsed eventually – and with it, the withdrawal of its armies from Sudan around 1050 B.C.

    The Kingdom of Napta (880 -590 B .C)

    Lara, the leader of Naptaians, managed to unify the Sudanese pocket states and sheikhdoms, creating the Kingdom of Napta at the foot of Barkal Mountain. Its borders extended as far as the extreme north of Sudan, right up to the Fourth Cataract of the Nile (and possibly slightly southwards to the Fifth Cataract, too). Lara was succeeded by Kushtu, who consolidated the rule of Naptaians. Rulers of this kingdom used the religion of Amoon to unify the Naptaian society. However, they adopted a local mystical foundation different from the Egyptian mystical foundation: the Naptaian rulers laid emphasis on their lineage from their great ancestor, Lara, while the pharaohs believed their right to rule came from Amoon Raa. The earliest thirteen Naptaian graves in the cemetery of Al-Karu suggest that distinguished royal graves of Kerma are virtually identical. The Naptaian civilization flourished during the so-called Classical Period. This era was characterized by the conquest and subsequent occupation of Egypt by King Piankhi (751 -716 B.C.) of Napta. He had dispatched a brave and agile army to invade Egypt. The king’s army was bestowed with the noblest commandments of combat; refraining from harming any children and the elderly and refusing to chase a fleeing enemy. They were early environmentalists, too: the army abstained from cutting down trees on the way to, and during, battle. King Piankhi was succeeded by Shabaka (689 -701 B.C), followed by Shebikto (701 – 716 B.C). He managed to maintain the Naptaian control over Egypt, and expanded his remit to Syria, annexed by Shebikto’s army to the Kingdom of Napta. The Assyrians, however, chaffed constantly against King Shebikto’s rule and revolted against him. When Taharqa succeeded Shebikto to the throne, he waged fierce wars against the Assyrians and defeated them several times; however, the Assyrians eventually got the better of the king’s forces by way of using steel armaments in battle – unknown to the Nubian army at that time. Taharqa was forced subsequently to withdraw from Syria and Palestine, keeping control over Egypt only. He was succeeded by Tanwet Amani (600 – 663 B.C). Tanwet inherited a throne and a state that had been both exhausted by wars launched by his predecessors. Indeed, Tanwet was forced finally to confine his rule to Napta (concurrently turned into a capital city), undermined by mounting pressure from the Assyrians. For reasons on which historians disagree still, the Kingdom of Napta and its attendant capital city both moved to Meroe (Bejrawiya) in 590 B.C; so signaling the advent of another new chapter in the rich history of Sudan that begins with the founding of the Kingdom of Meroe.

    The Kingdom of Meroe (590 B.C – 350 A.D)

    The Kingdom of Meroe extended its influence northwards: from beyond the Second Cataract; southwards up to the present-day Sudan–Ethiopia border; along the banks of the Blue Nile; and along the White Nile up to the present-day town of Kosti. The kingdom included Butana land, located between the River Atbara and the Blue Nile. The remains of wells and water bores surrounded by houses littered, in turn, with large quantities of emblematic Meroitic pottery have been discovered in several sites in Butana land.The actual capital of Kush was established in Meroe (Bejrawiya); however, its kings had built pyramids near Napta as early as 300 B.C, when Meroe had grown into a great city marked with huge industrial sites and temples. Meroe also boasted an inner city with palaces and royal swimming pools fitted with fountains; an observatory has also been identified there.The Meroitics built, near their city, the largest collection of pyramids in the old world, where they buried their king; in other words, the southern pyramids are the oldest, followed by the northern ones, and, lastly, the western pyramids. Several centers were established in the Meroitics Island such as Naga and Musawarat–es-Sufra. The island also houses several temples of worship for gods bearing ancient old Meroitic and Egyptian names. The most important Meroitic deity is Abadamac, portrayed with a lion’s head. By the second half of the third century B.C, Abadamac had developed into a pre-eminent formal god of the state, underpinned by King Arkmani’s ascendancy to the throne. Indeed, King Arkmani gained fame for leading a religious revolt against the priests of Amoon, culminating in the worship of Abadamac by his subjects to replace worship of Amoon. He abolished the Egyptian language as the official lingua franca of the state as well, and replaced it with the Meroitic language.Mining and steel manufacturing distinguished the Meroitic State in the old world. The location of Meroe is still littered with giant heaps of mining waste; recent archeological excavations have discovered parts of furnaces that fuse iron ore, too.The policy of Meroe in the north centered on supporting uprisings in Upper Egypt against foreign rulers. Having settled in close proximity to Aswan after 32 B.C, the Meroitics signed agreements with the Persians, Ptolemies, and Romans to herald the advent of a new flourishing era in Lower Nubia. Wealth reaped from trade enabled the Nubians to make some glorious achievements in the field of arts and handicrafts.Governance in Meroe was hallmarked by unprecedented decentralization. The kingdom was divided into three provinces, governed by rulers chosen by royals. However, as Meroitic rule drew to its end, the grip over the provinces became weaker and weaker, with provincial rulers consolidating their own power: they developed a new system of governance-rule by inheritance – and generally became rather independent from the center. This development was accompanied by the evolution of a wealthy class that became the nucleus for a feudal community. The community grew exponentially, leading to the relentless demise of the Meroitic State. Concurrently, the influence of some tribes such as the Nubians and the Bedouins of the desert grew to threaten the cohesion of the social fabric of Meroe. Consequently, they paralyzed commerce via recurrent raids on trade caravans, threatening the northern peripherals of the Roman Empire, too, in the process. New political entities beyond the state’s control, notably the Palemis and the Nubatians, emerged. Eventually the Meroitic Kingdom became too weak to control its own subjects and secure foreign trade routes: Meroe eventually fell prey in the middle of the fourth century to the Abyssinian Kingdom of Axum, which overran it without any resistance (signaling the start of the Post-Meroitic era.)

    Post-Meroitic Era (350-550 A.D)

    With the fall of Meroe, Nubia had virtually lost the central authority that had been regulating all walks of life for more than a thousand years. Consequently, the country entered into unchartered territory: an era of rampant anxiety of its fate.As befitting a habit of yearning constantly for rules and administrative entities to structure their lives, Sudanese soon reassembled under the flag of Meroe and founded the Kingdom of Allodia (Alwah). Soba became its capital. Old Dongola had been spearheading the proto-nationalist movement between the Nile and the desert until the Makuria Kingdom emerged. In northern Sudan, the Beja joined forces with the Palemis to wage fierce war against the Roman rulers of Egypt. They expelled the Romans; but they descended into internal conflict from which the Nubians emerged victorious to establish the Kingdom of Nubatia; Faras became the new kingdom’s capital. The battered Palemis retreated to the eastern desert to set up their own regime.

    Christian Nubia (550- 1504 A.D)

    Christianity had started to arrive gradually in Sudan at an early stage. It became the official religion of the Nubian kingdom only in the middle of the sixth century A.D, following the dispatchment of missionaries from Egypt by Emperor Justinian and Empress Theodora. Bilateral relations with Egypt witnessed a remarkable development, buttressed by the umbrella of a shared faith; both Egypt and the Nubian Kingdom became linked to the Roman Empire. However, harmonious Nubian-Egyptian relations were short-lived; Egypt’s relationship with Christianity shriveled – and with them, its ties to the Roman Empire. Even so, Nubia still remained beyond the influence of Islam. Successive Nubian leaders launched skirmishes against the Egyptian borders, prompting Caliph Umar Ibn Al-Khattab to order his rulers to invade Nubia. The first invasion took place during the reign of Amro Ibn Al-Aas, the second during the era of Abdullah Ibn Abi Al-Sarh (651 A.D). The Egyptian army penetrated deep up to Old Dongola in the second invasion, where they encountered stiff resistance that ended only with the signing of the famous Bagt (peace) Agreement.The agreement remained fully observed by both parties for seven centuries, with the Christian Kingdom of Nubia enjoying independence throughout. Later, the Kingdoms of Nubatia and Makuria united under the new name of Nubia Kingdom; Old Dongola got designated as the unified capital – and its king crowned King of Nubia. Nubatia became a semi autonomous province that enjoyed a system of rule akin to the present–day Sudan’s federated system of governance ushered in by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA).In the wake of these developments, Nubia witnessed remarkable economic growth accompanied - evidenced by progress in industrial, architectural and artistic spheres. Greater economic prowess presaged steadily a change in Nubia’s relations with Egypt, moving from a defensive position to an attacker’s stance.By the second half of the tenth century, the Nubians had indeed invaded southern Egypt, ransacking Aswan and occupying vast stretches of this part of Egypt right up to Akhmim and, in turn, help the Fatimids consolidate their rule in Egypt. Nubia made slight changes to the borders of southern Egypt, ending them at Adfo. The conquest of Egypt by the Fatimids in 969 A.D prompted a new dynamic in Nubian-Egyptian relations, which had reached a zenith at the end of the tenth century and beginning of the eleventh century. The Mamluks era (1250-1517) represented a decisive turning point in Nubia’s relations with Muslim Egypt. King Daoud, the Great Monarch of Nubia, adopted a menacing posture towards Egypt, invading Aswan and Izab in 1272. The Mamluks responded by way of counter attacks, triggering a state of economic and social instability in Nubia. Conflicts over power escalated, leading to the collapse of the Christian state in Old Dongola in 1323 and, concurrently, throwing the door open for the Arabs; with the factors that had impeded its advance removed, Islam began to spread rapidly throughout the area

    The Funj Sultanate (1504 - 1821)

    The downfall of the northern Sudanese state of Makuria to Muslims ushered a transition of power throughout Sudan. After a relatively lengthy period, the Funj Kingdom eventually saw the light: a new alliance between Muslim Blue Nile tribes in Funj under Amara Dungus and the Arab Abdallabs under Abdallah Jamaa eliminated the Christian state of Allodia (Alwah), and, in turn, the establishment of the Funj Sultanate in 1504 (at the same time when Muslims had lost Andalusia.) This alliance rallied several sheikhdoms under its banner: the Khashm Albahar Sheikhdom of the Blue Nile; the Bani Amer and Halenga Sheikhdoms of eastern Sudan; the Shanabla Sheikhdom of northern Sennar; and the Jaleyeen (amongst many other sheikhdoms, too.)The first basis for the political and administrative system of the state was underpinned by an agreement between Amara Dungus and Abdallah Jamaa: Funj leader Amara Dungus would become the king of the state and discharge his duties from the capital, Sennar, while Abdallah Jamaa and his people would become deputies to King Amara in their territories in the northern lands of the new state, with Garri as their regional capital. The royal system of the Funj state was not despotic as might appear at first blush; rather, it was based on the principle of shura (consultation). The state had a consultative council to assist in the choosing of rulers and in running the affairs of the country. It had the power to remove the sultan if he made mistake befitting it. The state pursued a decentralized system of rule because it matched the freedom-inclined tribal system. It also dovetailed with the nature of the Funj-Abdallab alliance because it gave the latter more freedom and autonomy than had prevailed under the one-state system of rule in the Kingdom of Sennar. Indeed, it could be said that the Funj state, which ended up ruling Sudan for over three centuries, stayed true to the decentralized system of rule, which its ancient predecessors had realized suited best the vast size of Sudan and the slant of its social and tribal structures. The Funj State also adopted the Islamic system introduced by Arabs: the principles of Islam accord utmost attention to justice, and incriminate aggression against any individual’s blood, honor, and property as well. The key trend in the Funj State advocated refraining from state-directed, populist ideological sloganeering dominated by a particular school of thought. The door was thus thrown open-wide for all Ulama (Muslim clergymen), jurists, and Sufis. They were all revered equally and welcomed by the state – with the key provision that such religious activity posed no direct threat to its own authority. Consequently, Sufism and its various Sufi orders began to spread rapidly. Indeed, the state had already been familiarized with a variety of schools of Sufi thought, notably the Malikite and Shafiite orders; in other words, Sudanese people had finally satisfied a long- cherished dream under the Funj State, leading to marked and prolonged stability in all facets of political, economic, and social life.

    The Fur Sultanate

    The Fur Sultanate evolved at the western periphery of Sudan in the middle of the seventeenth century. It was one in a series of Islamic kingdoms in Sudan sharing several aspects of government and administrative systems. The beginning of the political history of Fur is ambiguous due to the scarcity of records where the pre-Fur Sultanate period can be traced. At the end of the sixteenth century, the Barnue occupied Darfur briefly, accompanied by tumultuous unrest, in which the Fur consolidated their leadership under the Keira clan and snatched power subsequently. Sultan Suleiman Sulong took the reins of the Fur Kingdom from 1640-1660. He was the most famous among Fur rulers and the true founder of the sultanate. Suleiman Sulong was also the first Fur leader to give priority to the systematic dissemination of Islam; he built mosques, led congregational prayers, including those on Friday, and sought generally to unite all Muslims.To consolidate his rule, Sultan Suleiman Sulong sought support from Arab tribes in the area: the Habaniya; Riziigat; Messeyria; Taaisha; Bani Halba, and Maalya (aside from many other smaller Arab tribes, too).In 1758, Sultan Tairab of Darfur led an army to fight the Sultan of Musabaat in Kordofan, who fled subsequently and took refuge amongst the Abdallab in Halfaya. Tairab tracked the sultan up to the environs of Khartoum, occupying all those areas along the way. During the rule of Tairab, the Fur Kingdom expanded to reach Bir Natroan northwards, Bahr Al-Ghazal southwards, the River Nile (eastwards), and the strait of Tarja to the west.Conditions in the Fur Sultanate began to fluctuate between strength and weakness, deterioration and flourishment - until it crumbled finally. The relatively rapid deterioration owed much to Mohammad Ali Pasha’s invasion of Sudan finally. Indeed, in its dying days, Darfur fell under the rule of the Nuer Nilotic tribe of southern Sudan. Following the eruption of the Mahdist Revolt, the Darfuri Sultan, Ali Dinar, joined Al-Mahdi and became a Mahdist Emir (Prince). Following the battle of Um Debaikrat and the killing of Caliph Abdullah, Ali Dinar left Omdurman and returned to Darfur, which he continued to govern as a separate entity away from the authority of Condominium rule. Sultan Ali Dinar died as a martyr at the hands of British colonizers, and is revered as one of the greatest ever Fur sultans.

    The Kingdom of Tagali

    The Kingdom of Tagali was founded around the sixteenth century in the Nuba Mountains, southern Kordofan. Tagali is the name of a mountain, covering a space of 60 km² that cradles this pocket state and envelopes several villages.The momentous influx of Arab migration led to the collapse of the States of Makuria and Allodia and, in turn, the settlement of Arab tribes in the plains of Kordofan and Gezira. The population opposing to Arabs and Islam retreated to the Nuba Mountains, where they found a refuge to maintain their culture and independence. However, after the exponential increase of Arab migration to Kordofan, marriages between Arabs and indigenous groups paved the way for Arabs to head towards the Nuba Mountains.At the beginning of the sixteenth century a fageer (Muslim saint) known as Mohammad Al-Jaali came from the land of Jaleyeen tribes. This man was renowned for being a good-mannered, God-fearing, pious, and righteous saint. He attracted the hearts of natives and earned the acceptance of their chieftain who married his daughter to him. The couple gave birth to a child named Aba Jareeda - nicknamed Gaili. The child grew up to inherit the kingdom in 1570 A.D. from his grandfather; in other words, the first Muslim King of Tagali. The inauguration of Gaili signaled the birth of the Islamic Kingdom of Tagali, which remained in control of the region until the end of the nineteenth century. The founding of this kingdom also had a great impact on the spread of Islam and Arab culture throughout its lands. Arab migration to the region increased because successive kings encouraged clergymen, Muslim scholars, and Sufi orders to come and settle in the Kingdom of Tagali. The kingdom played a significant role against Turkish occupation of Sudan, too: it was the first region to support Imam Mahdi and supply him with men and arms to fight the Turk and, eventually, overcome them.

    The Kingdom of Musabaat

    Kordofan was the focal point of the ambitions of the Fur and the Funj alike. Each of them dispatched armies to annex it at various periods of history. Historical records show that a power struggle erupted between the Keira and Musabaat clans of the Fur. This conflict ended in a massive migration of Musabaat from Darfur to Kordofan, where they established their own kingdom in spite of conflict between the Funj and the Fur over the control of Kordofan having not yet peaked. Throughout 1660-1680, Prince Hangal of Musabaat tried to attack the Fur with the aim of ousting Sultan Musa (the son of Sultan Suleiman Solong). However, the prince was defeated and his army beaten back to Kordofan, where he found the Fur had sent an army to annex Kordofan to their own kingdom.The history of Musabaat is all but a series of persistent wars against the Fur and against the Funj. The Musabaat became familiarized with state formation and accompanying institutions only with the advent of the armies of Ismail Pasha and subsequent control by Mohammad Daftardar of Darfur around 1821. The period of the rule of the Islamic kingdoms is regarded widely as marking the real birth of the contemporary Sudanese identity. Sudanese personality has not been built on race or color. Supremacy has never been accorded to a race over another because these kingdoms created a fertile ground for mixed marriages and general ethnic fusion amongst the populace. This personality is evidenced by Sudanese facial and cultural characteristics developed through ancient cross-insemination between the cultures of its indigenous citizens and those of early immigrants to the lands of modern-day Sudan right until the arrival of Islamic and Arab culture to Sudan. If we, for instance, take language as a cultural component and vessel, it becomes apparent that Sudanese people have borrowed the old Egyptian language at the time of the Kingdom of Napta, which, in turn, they deployed to record their worldly and religious affairs. However, when Sudanese people developed, they turned to use their own Meroitic tongue. During the Christian period, Sudanese used both the Greek and Coptic languages to document prayers and hymns. However, they soon abandoned those languages too, after developing a written text for their Nubian language. When Muslim Arabs came with the language of the Qu’ran, Sudanese people were receptive to it and enriched it with, amongst others, the terminology of agriculture and irrigation. They also added to their own sentence structures and modes of pronunciation. Although several Sudanese tribes have maintained their native tongues to the present day, Arabic spread spontaneously throughout Sudan to become the lingua franca of its people - and an important marker for cultural unity, too.The co-existence of Arabic Islamic thought existing side-by-side with ultra ancient native civilizations for a long period enabled Sudanese people to blend together the best native and immigrant ingredients to form a unique cultural identity. Thus, a Sudanese person, wherever he or she goes, is distinguishable by good manners, honesty, piety, chastity, hospitality, determination, and courage.

    Qatar-Sudan Archaeological Project (QSAP)

    The Qatar-Sudan Archaeological Project (QSAP) is a Qatari initiative with the objective of promoting the rich archaeological heritage in the Republic of the Sudan. It comes in fulfillment to the will of the political leadership in the two countries to promote the cultural heritage of the country.For More Information