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Water & National Resources in Sudan
2014-04-01 14:20:55

Water & National Resources in Sudan

  The Renaissance Dam In 1904 a study was conducted by the United States Bureau of reclamation. The study identified 26 sites for constructing dams in Ethiopia. The most important site was the current Renaissance Dam project, which located on Alabaly River, the largest river in Ethiopia .  The incoming water was estimated by 25 billion cubic meters, the Dam is situated just about 20 km from the Sudanese border in Bani Shangol Region. In February 2011 the government of Ethiopia declared the start of the construction work of the Renaissance Dam on the Blue Nile for the purpose of ،...

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Sudan and the United States of America
2014-02-19 00:00:00

Sudan and the United States of America

Statement of Shirley Christian, Business ManagerFrutarom, Inc., North Bergen, New JerseyTestimony Before the Subcommittee on Tradeof  the House Committee on Ways and MeansHearing on the Use and Effect of Unilateral Trade SanctionsMay 27, 1999Thank you Mr. Chairman and members of the Subcommittee for this opportunity to testify. My name is Shirley Christian. I am pleased to testify today on behalf of Frutarom, Inc. in my capacity as Business Manager of Frutarom Meer’s gum division. Frutarom is a leading processor and supplier of gum arabic in the world, and one of only three processors i،...

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Sudan & South Sudan Relations
2014-02-13 00:00:00

Sudan & South Sudan Relations

Comprehensive Peace AgreementMEKELLE AgreementAgreement on Banking Agreement on Border Issues Agreement on Certain Economic MattersAgreement on Post Service Benefits Sudan&South  Agreement on Security Arrangements Agreement on trade Sudan &South Sudan Cooperation AgreementFramework Agreement on the Stuts of Nationals of the State Related Matters ،...

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Report of the Committee On Handing over of Projects of Darfur Transitional Authority For the period 2007 – 2011
2014-02-05 00:00:00

Report of the Committee On Handing over of Projects of Darfur Transitional Authority For the period 2007 – 2011

Introduction Like other States of the Sudan, the State of the grate Darfur enjoy a number of development projects in the different fields of development, some of which are financed through the national development budget, such as the Road of Al Ingaaz Al Gharbi (Western salvation road), the Martyr Sabrah Airport, Abu Jabrah railroad, Neiala and El-Obied transport line – Al Foulah, Neiala - Al Fasher. Other projects are funded from States’ development budget, such as the project of water harvest, the project of States internal routes, the project of the Marrah Mountain (Jabal Marrah)- ،...

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Abyei
2014-02-05 00:00:00

Abyei

Protocol between the Government of Sudan and SPLM/A on the Resolution of Abyei ConflictAbyei Area Referendum ACT 2009How the Abyei experts exceeded their mandate Arbitration Agreement between The Government of Sudan and The Sudan People’s Liberation Movement on Delimiting Abyei Area Agreement Of Temporary Arrangements For Administration And Security Of The Abyie Area.Agreement Between The Government of Sudan And The UN Concerning The Status of The UNISFA . AUHIP Proposals Towards a Resolution of The Issue of AbyeiAUHIP TFA Proposal Final Sudan Legal Note 27.12 LASTThe Republic of Sudan ،...

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Home » Important Articles » Women in Sudan

Outstanding examples of Sudanese Women


  • Outstanding examples of Sudanese Women Sudan stems from the cultural heritage and valuable principles that emphasizes equality and gender justice and honors women and believes in the importance of her role as a renaissance and building of society, Sudanese women exceeded her counterparts in the neighboring counters and got the right of voting in 1954 and the right of candidature in 1964. The first Sudanese women entered the Sudanese parliament in 1964, percentage of women in the current 2010 is over 25%, there was a remarkable leap based on the election law giving a Sudanese women a great advantage to achieve 25 percent of parliaments and legislative assemblies. Sudan’s interim constitution has also granted women the right to participate in formation and join political parties, unions and federations which enabled all political parties to include active women leaders in leadership and executive offices, which enabled women to participate in making many political decisions. The interim constitutions ensured the foundations of social, economic and political justice among all categories and bodies and between women and men which achieve a secure and stable nation, it also ensured women’s right in equal wage for equal work since the 70s and women has granted the equality with men in the age of pension. In 1998 the constitution has granted women the right to grant citizenship to her children of a foreigner husband. Sudan is one of the first African and Arab countries to employ women in judiciary, the number of women judges is 80, women assumed senior position in civil service and diplomatic crop and reached the rank of major general in the armed forces, police and security. Procedures which have been taken to empower women: A national plan for the advancement of women has developed (1998-2002) a 25 years strategy (2002-2027). The state adopted the national policy for women empowerment, which was authorized in 2007, in commitment to the developmental goals for Millennium, and to achieve sustainable development and working to bridge the gaps and the development of national strategic partnership between the state institutions and the civil society organizations and system to create favorable conditions to upgrade the status of women. The policy document constitutes a scientific proof to what the constitution of Sudan, national laws and regional and International agreements assure guarantee. It consists of the main subjects: Health, environment, education, economical empowerment, human right and law, political participation, decision making, peace and conflict resolution. The national policy for girls education was approved in 2007, and the national strategy for family in 2008, the national plan for combating gender-based on violence was announced in 2006, the adoption of quota system in general election law in 2008, which guaranteed 25 percent of seats in parliament for women in all legislative bodies, as a clear evidence on the policy of women empowerment in Sudan. Sudan has established a unit to combat violence against women and girls, in addition to that, the ministry of interior established family and child protection unit in 2007. During the last period, a number of women were employed in positions of ministers, state ministers, and governor’s advisors and ministers in local states and ambassadors. Sudan was one of the first counties give women the opportunity in judiciary, where women held senior positions and assumed the position of judge and supreme court judge up to their number reached 80 judges, and there were leap recently in upgrading 45 women diplomats in 2008 and upgrading 12 in rank of ambassador. The restriction of upgrading to senior ranks in regular forces was canceled and according to constitutional degree number 22 in 2010, the number of women ministers were 2, and state ministers 6, president advisor 3, and on the national level the first women to hold the position of deputy speaker of parliament, on the local state level, the number of women parliamentarian are 88, governors of local state advisor is 5, in 2005 the nationality law was issued and redrafted in 2005, it grated women the right to give the citizenship to her children of foreigner husband, The criminal law in 1991 was amended in 2009 to include a text about especial protection for women during the armed conflicts. And the armed forces law which was drafted in 2007 includes an article concerning special protection for women in conflicts. The Sudanese law ensured all the rights of women on the bases of equality and nondiscrimination, all constitutions in Sudan since the independence in 1956 till the interim constitution of 2005 have ensured men and women, the constitution emphasizes the promotion of all human rights and fundamental freedoms and their protection and gives top priority to strengthening the rights of women in economical political and social aspects giving her special priority through positive discrimination, the public administrations for the development and organization of banking system has adopted economical programs which responsive to women’s need through the degree issued by the financial portfolio for financing small business, the portfolio allocated 70% to finance businesses in rural areas 30/5 of which are women projects. Concerning women’s participation in public service, all laws agree on the principle of equality and discrimination between genders. Foundations were laid in legislation to be applied on all employs of governmental and public and private institution, and they do not distinguished between rights and duties of employs on the basis on gender, the interim national constitution has guaranteed in article 33, the principle of equal wage and ensured positive discrimination for women, the national law of civil service 2007 ensured the principle of free competition and re-ensured the principle of equal wage, stressing that choice and upgrading must be according to standard of competence and achievement ,some laws granted preferential privileges to women based on her physical status considering pregnancy and lactation in commitment to previous principles of international convention ,women make up 26% of the work force in general and 45% of work force the criminal law in 1991 was amended in 2009 to include a text about special protection woman during armed conflicts. The armed forces law written in 2007 includes an article concerning special protection for woman in conflicts ". The Sudanese laws ensure all the rights of woman on bases of equality and nondiscrimination ,all constitution in Sudan since the independence in 1956 till the interim constitution of 2005, have ensured human rights without discrimination between men and women , the constitutive emphasizes the promotion of all human rights and fundamental freedoms and their protection and gives top priority to strengthening the rights of woman in economical political and social aspects giving her special priority through positive discrimination.

    Leadership positions were occupied by women

    table border="1"> Federal minister State minister Local minister The Supreme Court Judge Advisor for the president of the Republic State governor The undersecretary Lieutenant-General Major General Advisor for State governor The director of the general department Ambassador Director at the UNISCO General Secretary  Secretary of businesswomen The general Director of Sudan News Agency Dean of the college The director of high institute The director of National Organization Member of National Election Commission Head of committee at the National Assembly Deputy chairman at the  National Assembly

    Event and Date

               
    The event The yearNo.
    Establishment of the first school for girls. 1907 1-
    Establishment of the first school for Nursing. 1920 2-
    Establishment of the first school for Midwives. 1921 3-
    Establishment of the first college for training teachers. 1921 4-
    Opening of the first secondary school for girls 1945 5-
    The first girl entered Khartoum University College. 1945 6-
    Participation of women in political secret activity. 1946 7-
    The first female social organization (Educated girls Association in Omdurman). 1947 8-
    Union formation of the Sudanese teachers. 1949 9-
    Sudanese Women’s Union Formation of 1952 10-
    The first women’s Union in Sudan 1953 11-
    The first constitution drafting committee, including (Mrs. Thuraiya Aldirdeery) 1953 12-
    Women got the right to vote in graduates constituencies. 1954 13-
    Sudanese women got the right to vote and candidacy. 1964 14-
    The first member of Parliament.(Fatima Ahamed Ibrahim). 1965 15-
    The first women entered the Judicial system 1965 16-
          Establishment of the first private college for girls in Sudan.  AlAHFAD.                                                                                                                                            1966 17-
    Women got the right to equal pay for equal work with men. 1967 18-
    Establishment of the first Islamic College for girls. 1968 19-
    The first Women occupied the post of deputy minister in Sudan (Ministry of Social Affairs). 1969 20-
    The appointment of the first women as a Minister. 1971 21-
    The participation of women in committee of national charter, boards of banks department, security and military forces institutions. 1970 22-
    The appointment of women in legitimate and civil judiciary. 1970 23-
    Publishing of the first Sudanese female magazine (Bit Alwadi). 1974 24-
    The parliament included 12 women from total of 250 members. 1974 25-
    Establishment of the first centre for women development at the Ministry of social development and welfare. 1975 26-
    The parliament included 18 women from a total of 368 members. 1980 27-
    The appointment of the first women as Undersecretary. 1981 28-
    The first women appointed as the chairperson for   Education permanent committee at the national assembly. 1986 29-
    Formation of the first Union for businesswomen in Sudan and it’s a member of executive office for the chamber of Arabic businesswomen. 1993 30-
    Establishment of general Department for Women at Social planning Ministry. 1993 31-
    Sudanese women occupied the post of chairperson of social committee affairs at the national assembly. 1994 32-
    Sudanese women occupied the post of chairperson of industrial committee and community development at the national assembly. 1995 33-
    The first women appointed as governor of local state. 1995 34-
    Preparing national plan for advancement of women. 1996 35-
    Sudanese women granted the right of nationality to their sons from their foreign husbands. 1998 36-
    Sudanese constitution gives the right to women in the nomination and election for the post of the president of the republic. 1998 37-
    The president issued a decree banning the arrest of pregnant or breastfeeding women civil cases for a period of two years and postpone judgment in criminal cases until she gives birth and breastfeed her child for two years. 2000 38-
    Formation of national committee of women and peace. 2000 39-
    The first women appointed as ambassador at the ministry of foreign affairs. 1999 40-
    Women appointed as chairperson of peace committee at the national assembly.(Mrs. Helen Olair). 2001 41-
    Women occupied the post for chairperson of society development committee at the national assembly.(Mrs. Marwa Osman Jaknon). 2001 42-
    Formation of Sudanese Women’s network for peace Development and reconstruction. 2002 43-
    Formation of committee for advancement of Sudanese women. 2003 44-
    Establishment of studies and research units for women at high educational institutions in Sudan. 2005 45-
    Appointment of four women as the heads of committee at the interim national assembly. 2005 46-
    Establishment of Federal Ministry for women affairs (Ministry of social welfare and women and child affairs. 2005 47-
    Allocation of quota for women at the national assembly and State legislatures 25% 2007 48-
    Authorization of national policy to empower woman. 2007 49-
    Authorization of strategic plan for family. 2008 50-
    Men and woman became equal in reaching the age of retirement (60) years. 2008 51-
    Sudanese woman got the rank of Lieutenant-General at police 2013 52-
    Won the awarded for the LOreal UNISCO in science for Arab Fellowship. (Rasha Izaldeen Mohamed Osman). 2013 53-
    Won the awarded the LOreal UNISCO in UNISCO .DR. SAHWA ADIL NORAIN 2013 55-

    Majors

                     
    The first Sudanese woman drove a car.(Alnageya farah abu zaid ahamed). 19241-
    The first patch of students for Sudanese girls. 1930 2-
    The first Sudanese inspector for learning girls.(Madina abd allah). 1940 3-
    The Sudanese singer (Aisha Musa). 1942 4-
    The Sudanese girl entered Khartoum university college.(Dr. Khalda zahir). 1945 5-
    The first woman entered governmental sector at economic and trade department.( Mrs. Hayat rodwan). 1945 6-
    The first woman played guitar and joined to the Sudanese Radio orchestra.(jadawiya Musa).    1945 7-
    The first Sudanese woman to be  novelist (Malikat Aldar Mohamed) 1946 8-
    The first Sudanese woman to be nurse.(Donia Sulaiman Okasha). 1946 9-
    The first Sudanese woman to broadcaster.(Mahasin Osman). 1947 10-
    The first Sudanese to journalist (Takoi Sirr Kissyan) published (Bint Alwadi ) magazine and it was the first woman’s magazine. 1947 11-
    The first Sudanese woman was an active in Radio and its some program. 1948 12-
    The first woman graduated from faculty of ARTS with grade (diploma) (Angel Ishag Girgis). 1948 13-
    The first Sudanese doctor (Dr. khalda zahir). 1952 14-
    The first female protest was during celebration of signing Sudanese bilateral rule agreement. 1954 15-
    The first Sudanese woman was trading in Khartoum market.( Alradiya Hassan alssayig). 1954 16-
    The first feminist magazine,(sawt almaraa), the editor in chief was Fatima Ahamed Ibrahim. 1955 17-
    The first Sudan woman became the dean of nursing and midwifery. (Hawaa Ali Albasir). 1956 18-
    The first Sudanese woman started woman corner in the Sudan newspaper.(Zainab Abdalgadir). 1958 19-
    The Sudanese woman got pension (Madena Abdallah). 1958 20-
    The first Sudanese woman became customs inspector in Khartoum international airport Hall. 1960 21-
    The first Sudanese woman became a lawyer(Saniya Mustafa). 1962 22-
    The first Sudanese woman became broadcaster in Sudan TV and the famous program was ( bareed almushahid). 1963 23-
    The first Sudanese woman got a membership of round table in Juba (Daboura Abouk  Deng). 1964 24-
    The first Sudanese woman participated in parliament and won the circles of graduates.(Fatima Ahamed Ibrahim). 1965 25
    The first Sudanese woman appointed in judicial body. 1965 26-
    The first Sudanese woman appointed in executive body as deputy for Youth Minister (Nafisa Ahamed Alameen). 1971 27-
    The first Sudanese woman became a Minister of social affairs in Sudan (Fatima Abd almahmoud). 1971 28-
    The first Sudanese woman appointed as judge in all Africa ( Mowalana Ehssan Mohamed Fakhri). 1976 29-
    The first Sudanese woman appointed as high court judge. ( Mowalana Ehssan Mohamed Fakhri). 1976 30-
    The first Sudanese woman appointed as Undersecretary,(Rashida Abd almontalib). 1981 31-
    The first Sudanese woman became vestal (Fortonata koashi). 1981 32-
    The first Sudanese woman appointed as a chairperson of social affairs committee at the national assembly ( Safiya Abd alrahim Altaybe). Sudanese 1994 33-
    The first Sudanese woman appointed as a chairperson of industrial committee and society  development at the Sudanese national assembly .( prof. Sit Alnafar Mahjoob, Dr, Simaya Mohamed Ahmed Abu khashawa). 1995 34-
    The first Sudanese woman appointed as a state’s governor. (Agens Goni  locodou). 1995 35-
    The first Sudanese woman was chosen as pioneer for the national assembly (khadiga karar Alsheik Madani). 1996 36-
    The first Sudanese woman won by geographical constituencies at the national assembly. (Dr. Alaweya Ali Musa Abdeen). 1996 37-
    The first Sudanese woman appeared on British TV (Zainab Mohamed Khair  Badawi ). 1998 38-
    The first Sudanese woman became Ambassador (Zainab Mohamed Mahmoud Abd Alkahrim). 1998 39-
    The first Sudanese woman became general director to Sudan News Agency ( Niemat Mohamed Bilal). 1998 40-
    The first Sudanese woman appointed as advisor to the president of the republic for child and woman affairs.(Dr Soaad Alfatih). 2001 41-
    The first Sudanese woman became a general at police ( Dr, general Nour Alhuda Alshafei). 2001 42-
    The first Sudanese woman elected at the national assembly for Sudan Workers Trade Unions Federation.(Raga Hassan Khalifa ). 1996 43-
    The Sudanese advisor for legal affairs in Sudan (Badriya Sulaiman Abbas). 2001 44-
    The Sudanese woman of high council for Zakkat general secretaries in Sudan (Samya Ahamed Mohamed )   2001 45-
    The first Sudanese woman nominated to post of the president of republic.(Fatima Abd Almahmoud). 2010 46-
    The first Sudanese woman occupied the post of deputy of national assembly speaker.(Samya Ahamed Mohamed). 2010 47-
    The first Sudanese woman occupied the post girls college.(Soaad ALfatih Albadawi). 1983-1986 48-
    The first Sudanese woman occupied the post of the dean of faculty of ARTS at Khartoum University and chief of deans for college of ARTS in Arab world.(Dr. Zakiya Awad Satti) 1993-1979 45-
    The first Sudanese woman appointed as general director to the service affair chamber. 1999- 2009 51
    The first Sudanese woman appointed as representative to Africa in Consultant committee for woman development fund at the united nations.(khadiga abu algassim haj hammed) 2007 52-
    The first Sudanese woman appointed as representative to consultation corporation. 2007 53-
    The first Sudanese woman won earth heroes prize. 2008 54-
    The first Sudanese woman appointed as permanent representative to Geneva.(Ambassador Raham Salih Alebaid). 2013 56-
    The first Sudanese woman appointed as deputy for Arab Parliament committee. (Samia Hassan Seed Ahamed). 2013 57-
    The first Sudanese woman appointed as advisor to the UN general security for woman protection against violence related to the conflicts. (Dr. Gada Awad Shawgi). 2013 58-

    Advisors to the state’s governors:

        table border="1"> Post Name Child and woman advisor- upper Nlie. Heiln Andro Weuo 1 Child and woman advisor- Unity. Mairy Bour 2 Child and woman advisor- East Equatoria. Elazabith Lerki 3 Peace affairs Advisor. The national assembly. Heiln O lair 4 Peace affairs Advisor. Central Equatoria. Heiln Kiala 5 Khartoum state’s governor advisor. Khartoum. Eshraga Saiyed Mahmoud 6 Child and woman advisor. kasala Hamida Alhag 7 Child and woman advisor. Sinar Bothaina Khalifa Gouda 8 Child and woman advisor. West Darfur Badriya Abd Alrahman 9 Child and woman advisor. South Darfur Nagat Tairab Dawood 10 Child and woman advisor. North Darfur Fawziya Abbass 11 Child and woman advisor. North Darfur Halima Tebn Bosh 12 Child and woman advisor. Agadarif Amal Abd ALateef 13 Child and woman advisor. Algadarif Soaad Deshol Mahmoud 14 Child and woman advisor. River Nile Shama Mohamed Ahamed. 15 Child and woman advisor. Red sea Bothaina Alshafeea 16 Child and woman advisor. Sinar Wesal Alsadig Arab 17 Child and woman advisor. South Kordufan Koga Toto 18 Child and woman advisor. Blue Nile Sandalya Alsheik 19 Child and woman advisor. West Darfur Ferdous Husain Salih 20 Child and woman advisor. South darfur Fatima Althir Kangoum 21 Child and woman advisor. Kassala Sayda Alhag 22 Child and woman advisor. Algazeera Mahasin haj alkhidir 23 Child and woman advisor. South Kordufan Rashida Said Ahmed 24 Child and woman advisor. Northern state Ahlam Mohamed Ibrahim 25 Child and woman advisor. Northern state Tagog Yahya Haj Al amen. 26 Judges: woman has entered judiciary body since seventieth, their number reach 80 judges, in addition to occupation of the post of the attorney general and advisor at the deputy general. Judge: Fareda Ibrahim Hussain

    Judges at high court:

                           
    post Name
    High court’s Judge. Judge Ihassan Fakhri 1
    High court’s Judge. Judge Farida Ibrahim Hussain 2
    High court member Judge Sanya Alrasheed Mergani 3
    High court member Judge Raba Abu Gisisa 4
    High court member Judge Badria Mohamed Ali 5
    High court member Judge Amera Yosif 6
    High court member Judge Nagwa Mohamed Kamal Fareed 7
    Ambassador at the ministry of Foreign Affairs, Therefore woman has entered it since 1970.                                
    Post Name
    Ambassador. Asmaa Mohamed  Abd allah. 1
    Ambassador. Fatima saiyed Ahmed ALbilay 2
    Ambassador. Zainab Mohamed Mahmoud Abd alkareem. 3
    Ambassador. Ganss Loukodou 4
    Ambassador. Fayza Hassan Taha 5
    Ambassador at the ministry of foreign affairs. Elham Ibrahim Shantair 6
    Ambassador to Spain.  Sudanese Ayda Abd Almageed 7
    Sudanese Ambassador to Norway. Nadya Gifoun 8
    Sudanese Ambassador to Arab League Shahera Hassan Wahbi 9
    Sudanese Ambassador to Italy. Ameera Gournas Dawoud 10
    Permanent representative to Geneva. Rahma Salih Alebaid 11
    Sudanese Ambassador to Sweden. Sawsan Abd almajeed 12
    Ambassador at the ministry of foreign affairs. Ahlam Abd algalil Abu zaid 13
    Ambassador at the ministry of foreign affairs. Sanaa Hamd Alawad 14

    Governors:

                                                   
    Post Name
    Khartoum state. Hekmat Hassan Sayed Ahamed. 1
    Awlya province. Mairy Ayaat. 2
    River Nile. Amal Hassan. 3
    Rombaik  province. Monika Samweul 4
    North kordufan Om basher Mahmoud. 5
    West darfur Abla Adam 6

    Woman Participation improvement in legislation body 1964-2010

                                                                                     
    Number of membershipLegislation institution Year
    Number of women Total number
    0,4 1 261 Parliament 1964
    - - 261